Leaders who don’t listen

How Well Do Leaders Listen? Not Very — Research Study

How well do managers listen? How effective are they at gaining commitment—as opposed to compliance? To what extent do they involve the other person in discussion—versus telling them what to do? It’s been said that there are two kinds of leaders: leaders who listen and leaders who don’t listen. We wanted to find out what percentage are in each camp and what behaviors are most prominent.

We decided to look at interpersonal skills across a broad group of leaders to see what sort of conclusions could be drawn. The results, as you will see, surprised us.

Leaders Who Don’t Listen

Overall, managers did a good job guiding the conversation, keeping things on track, and seeing the meeting through to formulating an action plan. That, we expected. However, the managers as a group did not listen well. They did little probing. They didn’t use the other person’s ideas in arriving at a solution. Instead, they tended to push their own views. They did not engender commitment but, rather, settled for compliance. The extent to which these practices were present is what surprised us. Three out of four managers fell into the leaders who don’t listen group.

Why is this important? These behaviors impair decision-making and execution—two crucial leadership functions. Decisions are not as good as they could be because the manager is not tapping into the other person’s ideas, only their own. How effectively will your people execute when they are coerced into doing something and are not truly committed?

Below, we’ll briefly explain our methodology, then look more closely at the findings. And finally, we’ll provide some thoughts on how to address these issues.

The Methodology

Eighty-four executives representing many fields, including financial, automotive, utility, insurance, retail, manufacturing, and healthcare, participated in this four-year study. Several were from Fortune 500 companies. The managers were all talented and considered successful at their jobs.

Managers generally do fine when discussing good news or lower-stakes topics. The interpersonal issues rear their heads during more critical conversations and conversations where there is a difference of views. We wanted to see how managers handled challenging conversations where the stakes were high.

A Tough Conversation with a Direct Report

We decided to have managers role play conducting a challenging discussion with their direct report. Experienced instructional consultants from our staff played the role of direct report. We allotted 20 minutes for the interaction and recorded it. Trained observers uniformly scored the recording afterward.

In the role-play, the manager had to inform a highly-skilled direct report that he was being passed over for a badly wanted promotion. The leader had to communicate that, although the person was qualified for the promotion, he did not qualify because of his poor people skills. The leader was also asked to maintain the employee’s interest in continuing their work at the company. The employee still had a future there.

What Were We Looking For?

In general, we looked at several things: 

  • Can the manager maintain control of the conversation and see it through to a successful conclusion?
  • Does the manager involve the participant in a give-and-take conversation? Is it a dialogue or a monologue?
  • Does the leader engender commitment to the next steps? Or does he settle for compliance or, worst case, coercion?

 

These principles underpin what we call the Five-Step Format—a tool for having optimally successful conversations.  We teach this in our Leadership Through People Skills book and give participants a chance to practice these skills and get feedback in our leadership workshops.

The Five-Step Format

Our Findings

Exerting Control 

The executives were skilled at taking and maintaining control of the meeting. For instance:

89% of the managers stated the purpose of the meeting.

69% of managers kept the meeting on track.

87% communicated their rationale for the action plan.

The managers did a good job of taking and maintaining control of the meeting and seeing it through to the end, where they established next steps. Clearly, the managers were not sitting on their hands passively. They were active in the discussion, highly task-oriented, and made things happen.


In our Q4 Model of Behavior, these leaders made things happen. They fell above the “task continuum” and exhibited an action orientation. This is a positive attribute for managerial behavior.

 

Not Caring About Others Feelings

Despite demonstrating great skill when it came to controlling the meeting, managers did not show regard for the other person’s feelings. 

Checking Interest to Proceed

After stating the purpose of the meeting, only 12% of managers checked for the other person’s readiness to proceed. The manager was plowing right through the conversation without regard for whether the other person was on board or not. This is a dangerous behavior for several reasons.

For one, it conveys a lack of regard for the person, which can be demotivating. Beyond that, just because you are ready to meet doesn’t mean the other person is. If they’re not prepared to proceed, you are both wasting your time. Your words are going to go in one ear and right out the other. Are you really going to get this person’s best thinking if they’re not receptive to having the meeting in the first place?

Gauging the other person’s receptivity to proceed is a crucial step, especially when you are delivering bad news, and the person is likely to be unreceptive.

After stating the purpose of the meeting, only 12% of managers checked for the other person's readiness to proceed.

Not Acknowledging the Other Person’s Emotions

After informing the person that they did not get the promotion, most managers did not involve the direct reports in dialogue. They didn’t acknowledge the other person’s distress over learning the bad news or collaborate on a course of action for the direct reports to improve their future performance.

Specifically, less than 25 percent of the participants acknowledged the other person’s feelings. And only 1 out of 5 managers allowed time for direct reports to vent their emotions.

If you are going to deliver bad news, the recipient will likely have some strong emotions. These need to be vented to have a productive conversation.

Why do leaders perform so poorly in this area? One reason is that managers are uncomfortable dealing with feelings, especially in a business setting. They don’t know how to appropriately acknowledge and vent another’s emotions. After all, they are not trained counselors.

Another is that managers routinely place a high value on keeping a tight lid on encounters that may go in unpredictable directions. In order to arrive at a predictable outcome envisioned by the executives, they were willing to sacrifice open communication and collaboration—both ways to engage employees.

Had the managers spent a few moments acknowledging the anger and disappointment of the direct reports in not getting the promotion, they could have helped the direct reports vent emotions that were likely interfering with participating in a meaningful discussion.

The little questioning that managers employed served to control the meeting rather than solicit input. 

Ineffective Listening

Managers did not solicit the other person’s views. According to our findings:

Only 24% of managers solicited the direct report’s ideas. 

Just 22% of managers got the direct reports’ views before presenting their own.

A mere 28% of managers asked questions to understand the direct report’s views. 

The managers did not seem interested in the direct report’s views. What was conveyed was, “I have all the requisite information. I don’t need your input, so I’ll talk, and you listen.”

This “leaders who don’t listen” theme was further apparent in the number of questions the managers asked. In the 20 minute meeting, 80% of the managers asked five questions or less. That included “Hi, how are you doing?” at the outset (if they even asked that!) A staggering 7% of the managers asked no questions at all.

When the managers did probe, only 30% of their questions were open-ended. For instance, “What is your view of your qualifications for getting the promotion?” or “What do you think you might do so that you’ll be chosen the next time a position is available?” The little questioning that managers employed served to control the meeting rather than solicit input.

Compliance vs. Commitment

Managers engendered compliance, not commitment. Hence, their execution was not as strong as it could have been.

As we know, the more involved someone is in a problem-solving discussion, the more committed they will be to the solution.

Unfortunately, less than 1 of out 3 managers developed any give-and-take in the form of a discussion.

Perhaps even more concerning for successful execution, 5 out of 6 leaders did not ask for the direct report’s input in developing an action plan regarding the direct report’s future.

How likely is it that a skilled and strong-minded employee would buy into a ready-made plan handed to them with little or no input or collaboration in today’s business world? Such a reaction is about as probable as someone enthusiastically being served a subpoena.

Self-Awareness of Interpersonal Skills:

What was particularly striking was that many expressed the view that they had performed well in a debriefing session. A frequent comment was, “I felt I got the job done.” They thought so because they controlled the meeting and sent the direct report back to their job with a plan.

In some ways, this was the most alarming finding of all. They informed the person they didn’t get the promotion, didn’t acknowledge their feelings, didn’t ask for their input in the discussion, and then told them what their action plan would be. And they thought that they handled this discussion well?

Based on our experience with countless 360-degree surveys, we know that leaders often have inaccurate perceptions of how they come across in certain areas. But it is disconcerting for these managers to think that they performed well when they were so uncollaborative and focused only on their own ideas.

What emerged was a pattern of controlling, but not engaging, behavior.

Psychological Associates Listening Research Tweet

Statistical Summary

BEHAVIOR Yes (%) No (%)
INITIATES:
Stated purpose of meeting
89%
11%
Kept meeting on track
69%
31%
Stated benefit of making a commitment
74%
26%
Communicated their rationale for action plan
87%
13%
ACKNOLWLEDGES FEELINGS:
Checked for readiness to proceed
12%
88%
Acknowledged direct report’s feelings
23%
77%
Allowed time for direct report to vent emotions
20%
80%
SOLICITS INPUT:
Got details before presenting own views
22%
78%
Solicited direct report’s ideas
24%
76%
Questioned to understand direct report
28%
72%
Checked for understanding of differences in views
16%
84%
Developed constructive give-and-take
31%
69%
ACTION PLANNING:
Asked for direct report’s input first in formulating an action plan
17%
83%

Controlling Leadership

In conclusion, the 84 managers across a broad cross-section of industries and companies got a difficult task done. And they did it in a command-and-control fashion.

They did not solicit the other person’s ideas regarding the issue. They ignored the other person’s feelings in this challenging discussion. And they told the other person what their next steps were going to be, again, without their involvement.

Ironically, in telling a direct report that they were deficient in people skills, the executives were not applying people skills themselves.

This is not an indictment of these decision-makers’ abilities. They are likely judged as successful in their corporate cultures for exhibiting a take-charge attitude or having excellent financial or technical acumen. However, we would argue that the decisions reached were not as good as they might have been, with only one person’s views considered rather than two. Additionally, the execution will not be as strong as it might have been either, as the other person was not involved in crafting the solution.

The take-charge, low regard behavior that the managers exhibited may get results in the short run. But over time, people get tired of their ideas not meaning anything. Turnover tends to be higher with Q1 (tell & do) managers, meaning that their talent goes out the door, and they have to start all over hiring new people, training them, and then seeing how long they will stay before they have to start looking again.

As communications author, Andy Stanley warns, “Leaders who do not listen will eventually be surrounded by people who have nothing to say.”

How to Improve Listening Skills

Fortunately, leaders can learn—and bring back to their job—skills that make them more empathetic, better collaborators, and improved listeners.

It isn’t necessary to delve into employees’ psyches or to try to change their personalities. Productive behavior can be learned. As we say, self-awareness + skills = more productive behavior.

Listening Workshops

This is the premise of our Q4 Leadership seminars, offered to executives to provide them with tools for improving their communication and influencing capabilities. We have conducted appraisals of the seminar participants’ performance. After six hours of the three-day seminar, participants participate in a role-play practice similar to the one described. Other seminar members are coached to play the part of the direct report.

After only a few hours of exposure to some simple techniques for better communication, the seminar participants are able to modify their behavior dramatically compared to the executives in our study. While the executives averaged eight probes in their role plays, the seminar participants averaged almost 22 in their practices. Although only a quarter of the executives questioned the direct reports to obtain the other’s ideas in the meeting, all of the seminar participants asked questions to get the other person’s ideas.

For more information, visit our Leadership Development page for virtual and in-person solutions. 

Listening Workshops

This is the premise of our Q4 Leadership seminars, offered to executives to provide them with tools for improving their communication and influencing capabilities. We have conducted appraisals of the seminar participants’ performance. After six hours of the three-day seminar, participants participate in a role-play practice similar to the one described. Other seminar members are coached to play the part of the direct report.

After only a few hours of exposure to some simple techniques for better communication, the seminar participants are able to modify their behavior dramatically compared to the executives in our study. While the executives averaged eight probes in their role plays, the seminar participants averaged almost 22 in their practices. Although only a quarter of the executives questioned the direct reports to obtain the other’s ideas in the meeting, all of the seminar participants asked questions to get the other person’s ideas.

For more information, visit our Leadership Development page for virtual and in-person solutions. 

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Gravatar is an image visualization service provided by Automattic Inc. that allows q4solutions.com to incorporate content of this kind on its pages.
Please note that if Gravatar images are used for comment forms, the commenter’s email address or parts of it may be sent to Gravatar – even if the commenter has not signed up for that service.

Personal Data processed: email address; Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy.

Payment processing services enable q4solutions.com to process payments by credit card, bank transfer or other means. To ensure greater security, q4solutions.com shares only the information necessary to execute the transaction with the financial intermediaries handling the transaction.
Some of these services may also enable the sending of timed messages to the User, such as emails containing invoices or notifications concerning the payment.

Stripe (Stripe Inc)

Stripe is a payment service provided by Stripe Inc.

Personal Data processed: various types of Data as specified in the privacy policy of the service.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy. Privacy Shield participant.

Heat mapping services are used to display the areas of a page where Users most frequently move the mouse or click. This shows where the points of interest are. These services make it possible to monitor and analyze web traffic and keep track of User behavior.
Some of these services may record sessions and make them available for later visual playback.

Hotjar Heat Maps & Recordings (Hotjar Ltd.)

Hotjar is a session recording and heat mapping service provided by Hotjar Ltd.
Hotjar honors generic „Do Not Track” headers. This means the browser can tell its script not to collect any of the User’s data. This is a setting that is available in all major browsers. Find Hotjar’s opt-out information here.

Personal Data processed: Cookies; Usage Data; various types of Data as specified in the privacy policy of the service.

Place of processing: Malta – Privacy Policy – Opt Out.

Crazy Egg (Crazyegg)

Crazy Egg is a heat mapping service provided by Crazy Egg, Inc.

Personal Data processed: Cookies; Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy.

This type of service has the purpose of hosting Data and files that enable q4solutions.com to run and be distributed as well as to provide a ready-made infrastructure to run specific features or parts of q4solutions.com. Some of these services work through geographically distributed servers, making it difficult to determine the actual location where the Personal Data are stored.

iubenda Consent Solution (iubenda srl)

iubenda Consent Solution is a service that facilitates the collection and management of proofs of consent provided by iubenda srl.

Personal Data processed: Data communicated while using the service.

Place of processing: Italy – Privacy Policy.

Amazon Web Services (AWS) (Amazon Web Services, Inc.)

Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a hosting and backend service provided by Amazon Web Services, Inc.

Personal Data processed: various types of Data as specified in the privacy policy of the service.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy. Privacy Shield participant.

This type of service allows interaction with social networks or other external platforms directly from the pages of q4solutions.com.
The interaction and information obtained through q4solutions.com are always subject to the User’s privacy settings for each social network.
This type of service might still collect traffic data for the pages where the service is installed, even when Users do not use it.
It is recommended to log out from the respective services in order to make sure that the processed data on q4solutions.com isn’t being connected back to the User’s profile.

LinkedIn button and social widgets (LinkedIn Corporation)

The LinkedIn button and social widgets are services allowing interaction with the LinkedIn social network provided by LinkedIn Corporation.

Personal Data processed: Cookies; Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy. Privacy Shield participant.

Facebook Like button and social widgets (Facebook, Inc.)

The Facebook Like button and social widgets are services allowing interaction with the Facebook social network provided by Facebook, Inc.

Personal Data processed: Cookies; Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy. Privacy Shield participant.

Twitter Tweet button and social widgets (Twitter, Inc.)

The Twitter Tweet button and social widgets are services allowing interaction with the Twitter social network provided by Twitter, Inc.

Personal Data processed: Cookies; Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy. Privacy Shield participant.

YouTube button and social widgets (Google Inc.)

The YouTube button and social widgets are services allowing interaction with the YouTube social network provided by Google Inc.

Personal Data processed: Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy. Privacy Shield participant.

ShareThis (Sharethis Inc.)

ShareThis is a service provided by ShareThis Inc., which displays a widget that allows interaction with social networks and external platforms as well as sharing the contents of q4solutions.com.
Depending on the configuration, this service can display widgets belonging to third parties such as the managers of social networks where interactions are shared. In this case, also the third parties that provide the widget will be informed of interactions and Usage Data on the pages where this service is installed.

Personal Data processed: Cookies; Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy.

Geolocation (q4solutions.com)

Q4solutions.com may collect, use, and share User location Data in order to provide location-based services.
Most browsers and devices provide tools to opt out from this feature by default. If explicit authorization has been provided, the User’s location data may be tracked by q4solutions.com.

Personal Data processed: geographic position.

This type of service makes it possible to manage a database of email contacts, phone contacts or any other contact information to communicate with the User.
These services may also collect data concerning the date and time when the message was viewed by the User, as well as when the User interacted with it, such as by clicking on links included in the message.

HubSpot Email (HubSpot, Inc.)

HubSpot Email is an email address management and message sending service provided by HubSpot, Inc.

Personal Data processed: email address; Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy.

ZOHO Campaigns (Zoho Corporation Pvt. Ltd.)

ZOHO Campaigns is an email address management and message sending service provided by Zoho Corporation Pvt. Ltd.

Personal Data processed: email address.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy. Privacy Shield participant.

Mailchimp (The Rocket Science Group, LLC.)

Mailchimp is an email address management and message sending service provided by The Rocket Science Group, LLC.

Personal Data processed: address; company name; Cookies; country; date of birth; email address; first name; gender; last name; phone number.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy. Privacy Shield participant.

This type of service helps with building and managing landing and invitation pages, i.e., pages for presenting a product or service, where you may add your contact information such as an email address.
Managing these pages means that these services will handle the Personal Data collected through the pages, including Usage Data.

Instapage (Instapage, Inc.)

Instapage is a landing page management service provided by Instapage, Inc., that allows q4solutions.com to collect the email addresses of Users interested in its service.
Instapage allows the Owner to track and analyze the User response concerning web traffic or behavior regarding changes to the structure, text or any other component of the created landing pages.

Personal Data processed: Cookies; email address; Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy.

This type of service allows q4solutions.com to manage support and contact requests received via email or by other means, such as the contact form.
The Personal Data processed depend on the information provided by the User in the messages and the means used for communication (e.g. email address).

ZOHO CRM Email (Zoho Corporation Pvt. Ltd.)

ZOHO CRM Email is a support and contact request management service provided by Zoho Corporation Pvt. Ltd.

Personal Data processed: various types of Data as specified in the privacy policy of the service.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy. Privacy Shield participant.

This type of service allows q4solutions.com and its partners to inform, optimize and serve advertising based on past use of q4solutions.com by the User.
This activity is performed by tracking Usage Data and by using Cookies, information that is transferred to the partners that manage the remarketing and behavioral targeting activity.
In addition to any opt out offered by any of the services below, the User may opt out of a third-party service’s use of cookies by visiting the Network Advertising Initiative opt-out page.

AdRoll (AdRoll, Inc.)

AdRoll is an advertising service provided by AdRoll, Inc.

Personal Data processed: Cookies; Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy – Opt Out.

Remarketing with Google Analytics (Google LLC)

Remarketing with Google Analytics is a remarketing and behavioral targeting service provided by Google LLC that connects the tracking activity performed by Google Analytics and its Cookies with the Google Ads advertising network and the Doubleclick Cookie.

Personal Data processed: Cookies; Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy – Opt Out. Privacy Shield participant.

Facebook Custom Audience (Facebook, Inc.)

Facebook Custom Audience is a remarketing and behavioral targeting service provided by Facebook, Inc. that connects the activity of q4solutions.com with the Facebook advertising network.

Personal Data processed: Cookies; email address.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy – Opt Out. Privacy Shield participant.

Facebook Remarketing (Facebook, Inc.)

Facebook Remarketing is a remarketing and behavioral targeting service provided by Facebook, Inc. that connects the activity of q4solutions.com with the Facebook advertising network.

Personal Data processed: Cookies; Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy – Opt Out. Privacy Shield participant.

Twitter Remarketing (Twitter, Inc.)

Twitter Remarketing is a remarketing and behavioral targeting service provided by Twitter, Inc. that connects the activity of q4solutions.com with the Twitter advertising network.

Personal Data processed: Cookies; Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy – Opt Out. Privacy Shield participant.

Twitter Tailored Audiences (Twitter, Inc.)

Twitter Tailored Audiences is a remarketing and behavioral targeting service provided by Twitter, Inc. that connects the activity of q4solutions.com with the Twitter advertising network.

Personal Data processed: Cookies; email address.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy – Opt Out. Privacy Shield participant.

LinkedIn Website Retargeting (LinkedIn Corporation)

LinkedIn Website Retargeting is a remarketing and behavioral targeting service provided by LinkedIn Corporation that connects the activity of q4solutions.com with the LinkedIn advertising network.

Personal Data processed: Cookies; Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy – Opt Out. Privacy Shield participant.

Google Ads Remarketing (Google LLC)

Google Ads Remarketing is a remarketing and behavioral targeting service provided by Google LLC that connects the activity of q4solutions.com with the Google Ads advertising network and the DoubleClick Cookie. 

Users can opt out of Google’s use of cookies for ads personalization by visiting Google’s Ads Settings.

Personal Data processed: Cookies; Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy – Opt Out. Privacy Shield participant.

This type of service analyzes the traffic of q4solutions.com, potentially containing Users’ Personal Data, with the purpose of filtering it from parts of traffic, messages and content that are recognized as SPAM.

Akismet (Automattic Inc.)

Akismet is a SPAM protection service provided by Automattic Inc.

Personal Data processed: various types of Data as specified in the privacy policy of the service.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy.

This type of service helps the Owner to manage the tags or scripts needed on q4solutions.com in a centralized fashion.
This results in the Users’ Data flowing through these services, potentially resulting in the retention of this Data.

Google Tag Manager (Google LLC)

Google Tag Manager is a tag management service provided by Google LLC.

Personal Data processed: Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy. Privacy Shield participant.

This type of service allows the Owner to build user profiles by starting from an email address, a personal name, or other information that the User provides to q4solutions.com, as well as to track User activities through analytics features. This Personal Data may also be matched with publicly available information about the User (such as social networks’ profiles) and used to build private profiles that the Owner can display and use for improving q4solutions.com.
Some of these services may also enable the sending of timed messages to the User, such as emails based on specific actions performed on q4solutions.com.

HubSpot CRM (HubSpot, Inc.)

HubSpot CRM is a User database management service provided by HubSpot, Inc.

Personal Data processed: email address; phone number; various types of Data as specified in the privacy policy of the service.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy. Privacy Shield participant.

HubSpot Lead Management (HubSpot, Inc.)

HubSpot Lead Management is a User database management service provided by HubSpot, Inc.

Personal Data processed: various types of Data as specified in the privacy policy of the service.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy. Privacy Shield participant.

ZOHO CRM (Zoho Corporation Pvt. Ltd.)

ZOHO CRM is a User database management service provided by Zoho Corporation Pvt. Ltd.

Personal Data processed: email address; various types of Data as specified in the privacy policy of the service.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy. Privacy Shield participant.

The rights of Users

Users may exercise certain rights regarding their Data processed by the Owner.

In particular, Users have the right to do the following:

  • Withdraw their consent at any time. Users have the right to withdraw consent where they have previously given their consent to the processing of their Personal Data.
  • Object to processing of their Data. Users have the right to object to the processing of their Data if the processing is carried out on a legal basis other than consent. Further details are provided in the dedicated section below.
  • Access their Data. Users have the right to learn if Data is being processed by the Owner, obtain disclosure regarding certain aspects of the processing and obtain a copy of the Data undergoing processing.
  • Verify and seek rectification. Users have the right to verify the accuracy of their Data and ask for it to be updated or corrected.
  • Restrict the processing of their Data. Users have the right, under certain circumstances, to restrict the processing of their Data. In this case, the Owner will not process their Data for any purpose other than storing it.
  • Have their Personal Data deleted or otherwise removed. Users have the right, under certain circumstances, to obtain the erasure of their Data from the Owner.
  • Receive their Data and have it transferred to another controller. Users have the right to receive their Data in a structured, commonly used and machine readable format and, if technically feasible, to have it transmitted to another controller without any hindrance. This provision is applicable provided that the Data is processed by automated means and that the processing is based on the User’s consent, on a contract which the User is part of or on pre-contractual obligations thereof.
  • Lodge a complaint. Users have the right to bring a claim before their competent data protection authority.

 

Details about the right to object to processing

Where Personal Data is processed for a public interest, in the exercise of an official authority vested in the Owner or for the purposes of the legitimate interests pursued by the Owner, Users may object to such processing by providing a ground related to their particular situation to justify the objection.

Users must know that, however, should their Personal Data be processed for direct marketing purposes, they can object to that processing at any time without providing any justification. To learn, whether the Owner is processing Personal Data for direct marketing purposes, Users may refer to the relevant sections of this document.

How to exercise these rights

Any requests to exercise User rights can be directed to the Owner through the contact details provided in this document. These requests can be exercised free of charge and will be addressed by the Owner as early as possible and always within one month.

Cookie Policy

Q4solutions.com uses Trackers. To learn more, the User may consult the Cookie Policy.

Additional information about Data collection and processing

Legal action

The User’s Personal Data may be used for legal purposes by the Owner in Court or in the stages leading to possible legal action arising from improper use of q4solutions.com or the related Services.
The User declares to be aware that the Owner may be required to reveal personal data upon request of public authorities.

Additional information about User’s Personal Data

In addition to the information contained in this privacy policy, q4solutions.com may provide the User with additional and contextual information concerning particular Services or the collection and processing of Personal Data upon request.

System logs and maintenance

For operation and maintenance purposes, q4solutions.com and any third-party services may collect files that record interaction with q4solutions.com (System logs) use other Personal Data (such as the IP Address) for this purpose.

Information not contained in this policy

More details concerning the collection or processing of Personal Data may be requested from the Owner at any time. Please see the contact information at the beginning of this document.

How “Do Not Track” requests are handled

Q4solutions.com does not support “Do Not Track” requests.
To determine whether any of the third-party services it uses honor the “Do Not Track” requests, please read their privacy policies.

Changes to this privacy policy

The Owner reserves the right to make changes to this privacy policy at any time by notifying its Users on this page and possibly within q4solutions.com and/or – as far as technically and legally feasible – sending a notice to Users via any contact information available to the Owner. It is strongly recommended to check this page often, referring to the date of the last modification listed at the bottom.

Should the changes affect processing activities performed on the basis of the User’s consent, the Owner shall collect new consent from the User, where required.

Personal Data (or Data)

Any information that directly, indirectly, or in connection with other information — including a personal identification number — allows for the identification or identifiability of a natural person.

Usage Data

Information collected automatically through q4solutions.com (or third-party services employed in q4solutions.com), which can include: the IP addresses or domain names of the computers utilized by the Users who use q4solutions.com, the URI addresses (Uniform Resource Identifier), the time of the request, the method utilized to submit the request to the server, the size of the file received in response, the numerical code indicating the status of the server’s answer (successful outcome, error, etc.), the country of origin, the features of the browser and the operating system utilized by the User, the various time details per visit (e.g., the time spent on each page within the Application) and the details about the path followed within the Application with special reference to the sequence of pages visited, and other parameters about the device operating system and/or the User’s IT environment.

User

The individual using q4solutions.com who, unless otherwise specified, coincides with the Data Subject.

Data Subject

The natural person to whom the Personal Data refers.

Data Processor (or Data Supervisor)

The natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body which processes Personal Data on behalf of the Controller, as described in this privacy policy.

Data Controller (or Owner)

The natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body which, alone or jointly with others, determines the purposes and means of the processing of Personal Data, including the security measures concerning the operation and use of q4solutions.com. The Data Controller, unless otherwise specified, is the Owner of q4solutions.com.

q4solutions.com (or this Application)

The means by which the Personal Data of the User is collected and processed.

Service

The service provided by q4solutions.com as described in the relative terms (if available) and on this site/application.

European Union (or EU)

Unless otherwise specified, all references made within this document to the European Union include all current member states to the European Union and the European Economic Area.

Cookies

Small sets of data stored in the User’s device.


Legal information

This privacy statement has been prepared based on provisions of multiple legislations, including Art. 13/14 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 (General Data Protection Regulation).

This privacy policy relates solely to q4solutions.com, if not stated otherwise within this document.

Latest update: July 27, 2020

iubenda hosts this content and only collects the Personal Data strictly necessary for it to be provided.

Terms of Use

Terms of Use

Acceptance of Terms

This Web site (“Site”) has been created and is supported by Psychological Associates. The content and services, including third party services, provided through this site are available for your use subject to the terms and conditions set out in this document.

By accessing or using the Site in any way, including, without limitation, use of any of the Services, downloading of any Materials, or merely browsing the Site, you agree to and are bound by these Terms of Use.

Psychological Associates reserves the right to change these Terms of Use and other guidelines or rules posted on the Site from time to time at its sole discretion without prior notification to users.

Intellectual Property

The Materials and Services on this Site are protected by copyright, trademark, patent, and/or other intellectual property laws; and any unauthorized use of the Materials or Services at this Site may violate such laws and these Terms of Use. Except as expressly implied in these Terms of Use, Psychological Associates does not grant any express rights to use the Materials and/or Services. You agree not to copy, republish, frame, download, transmit, modify, rent, lease, loan, sell, assign, distribute, license, sublicense, reverse engineer, or create derivative works based on the Site, its Materials, its Services, or their selection and arrangement, except as expressly authorized in these Terms of Use. In addition, you agree not to use any data mining, robots, or similar data gathering and extraction methods in connection with the Site.

User Conduct

In using the Site, including all Services and Materials available through it, you agree:

  • Not to disrupt or interfere with the security of, or otherwise cause harm to, the Site, or any Services, Materials, system resources, accounts, passwords, servers, or networks connected to or accessible through the Site or any affiliated or linked Web sites
  • Not to upload, post, or otherwise transmit through the Site any viruses or other harmful, disruptive, or destructive files
  • Not to create a false identity
  • Not to use or attempt to use another’s account, password, Service, or system without express authorization from Psychological Associates
  • Not to intentionally or unintentionally violate any applicable local, state, national or international law, or any regulations having the force of law.

You are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of your account and for all activities carried out using your account information. You agree to notify Psychological Associates immediately of any unauthorized activity using your account information, or if you suspect that the confidentiality of your account information has been compromised.

Managing Content and Communications

Although it is not our intention to do so, Psychological Associates reserves the right, at its sole discretion, to delete or remove user content from the Site and to restrict, suspend, or terminate your access to all or parts of this Site, at any time (including, without limitation, our good faith belief that you have not complied with these Terms of Use) without prior notice or liability.

Psychological Associates may, but is not obligated to, monitor or review (i) any areas of the Site where users transmit or post user content, including but not limited to areas where Services are available, and (ii) the substance of any user content.

To the maximum extent permitted by law, Psychological Associates will have no liability relating to user content arising under the laws of copyright, libel, privacy, obscenity, or otherwise.

User Access Information

Where use of the Site or access to certain Materials requires access information, you will be required to provide certain access information.

In accessing these Materials, including all Services and Materials available through it, you agree to:

  • Provide accurate, complete, and up-to-date information about yourself as required by the Site’s registration form.
  • Abide by the terms and conditions as outlined throughout the Terms of Use document, especially those in the Intellectual Property section.

Psychological Associates Privacy Policy

Your Registration Data and certain other information that you provide to us are subject to our Privacy Policy. For further information, please see our full Privacy Policy.

Disclaimer of Warranties

In using this Site and its Services, you expressly understand and agree that:

  • The Site and the Services contained on it are provided on an “as is” and “as available” basis and that use of the Site and Services is at your own risk.
  • Psychological Associates disclaims all warranties of any kind, whether by express or implied (including, but not limited to the implied warranties or merchantability) fitness for a particular purpose and non-infringement.
  • Psychological Associates makes no warranties regarding the accuracy, reliability, quality, or availability of service of any products, Materials, or Services made available on the Site.
  • Any damage to your computer or loss of data that results from the use of the Site or Services, or from the download of any material will be your sole responsibility and is done at your own discretion.
  • No advice or information obtained from the Site or its Services, whether written or oral, shall create any warranty not expressly stated.

Further, Psychological Associates makes no warranty or condition that:

  • The Services will meet your requirements
  • The Services will be uninterrupted, timely, secure or error-free
  • The results that may be obtained from the use of the Services will be accurate or reliable
  • The quality of any products, Services, information, or other material purchased or obtained by you through the Services will meet your expectations
  • Any errors in the software will be corrected.

Limitation of Liability

To the extent not prohibited by applicable law, Psychological Associates is not liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, consequential, punitive, or exemplary damages, including, but not limited to: damages for loss of profits, revenue, goodwill, use, data, electronically transmitted orders or other economic advantage (even if Psychological Associates has been advised of the possibility of such damages), however caused and regardless of the theory of liability, whether in contract (including fundamental breach), tort (including negligence), or otherwise, arising out of or related to:

  • The use or inability to use the Services
  • The cost of procurement of substitute goods and Services purchased or obtained or messages received or transactions entered into though or from the Services
  • Unauthorized access to or alteration of your transmissions or data
  • Statements or conduct of any third party on the Services or Site
  • Any other matter relating to the Services, including content you may download, use, modify, or distribute from the Site.

You have the sole responsibility for adequate protection and backup of data and/or equipment used in connection with the Site and will not make a claim against Psychological Associates for lost data, re-run time, inaccurate output, work delays, or lost profits resulting from the use of content.

You agree to hold Psychological Associates harmless from, and you covenant not to take any legal action against Psychological Associates for, any claims based on using the Site, whether in contract (including fundamental breach), tort (including negligence), or otherwise, except where Psychological Associates is prevented by law from making such exclusions or limitations.

Links

The Services on this Site may provide links to other World Wide Web sites or resources. Because Psychological Associates has no control over such sites and resources, you acknowledge and agree that Psychological Associates is not responsible for the availability of such external sites or resources; and does not endorse and is not responsible or liable for any content, advertising, products, or other materials on or available from such sites or resources. You further acknowledge and agree that Psychological Associates shall not be responsible or liable, directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused or alleged to be caused by or in connection with use of or reliance on any such content, goods, or services available on or through any such site or resource.